Salt and pepper noise

Salt and pepper noise was present in one of the noisy images from Laboratory 10a, and we were tasked with removing this noise by filtering. However, this page will demonstrate the opposite - how to create this kind of noise. Here is an example of salt and pepper noise from Laboratory 10a:.

First, we will start with an image. For simplicity purposes, we will use another image from Laboratory 10a this time of boats.

Two problems arise when trying to create the noise for a salt and pepper effect. Which pixels are to be changed with noise?

How are these pixels changed? To solve the first problem, a random number is generated between 1 and a final value.

salt and pepper noise

If the number is the final value, then the pixel will be changed with noise. If the final number is larger, fewer pixels will be changed. As the number decreases, more pixels will be changed, thus making a noisier picture.

To determine how the pixel is changed, a random number is generated between 1 and max for grayscale values.

This algorithm is implemented when the given pixel is noted to be changed.

Salt & Pepper Noise and Median Filters, Part II – The Code

Instead of the original value of the pixel, it is replaced by the random number between 1 and By randomizing the noise values, the pixels can change to a white, black, or gray value, thus adding the salt and pepper colors. By randomizing which pixels are changed, the noise is scattered throughout the image. The combination of these randomizations creates the "salt and pepper" effect throughout the image.

Examples using various degrees of noise are displayed below in the "Pictures" section. Background Salt and pepper noise was present in one of the noisy images from Laboratory 10a, and we were tasked with removing this noise by filtering. Alumni Liaison. This page was last modified on 4 Decemberat This page has been accessed 4, times. Currently Active Pages x.Documentation Help Center. Median filtering is a common image enhancement technique for removing salt and pepper noise.

Because this filtering is less sensitive than linear techniques to extreme changes in pixel values, it can remove salt and pepper noise without significantly reducing the sharpness of an image. In this topic, you use the Median Filter block to remove salt and pepper noise from an intensity image:.

Use the Image From Workspace block to import the noisy image into your model. Set the Value parameter to I. Use the Median Filter block to eliminate the black and white speckles in the image. Use the default parameters. The Median Filter block replaces the central value of the 3-by-3 neighborhood with the median value of the neighborhood. This process removes the noise in the image.

Use the Video Viewer blocks to display the original noisy image, and the modified image. Images are represented by 8-bit unsigned integers. Therefore, a value of 0 corresponds to black and a value of corresponds to white. Accept the default parameters. Set the configuration parameters.

Set the parameters as follows:. You have used the Median Filter block to remove noise from your image. For more information about this block, see the Median Filter block reference page in the Computer Vision Toolbox Reference. Choose a web site to get translated content where available and see local events and offers. Based on your location, we recommend that you select:.

Lesson 30: Removing Salt and Pepper Noise using Mean Filter in Matlab

Select the China site in Chinese or English for best site performance. Other MathWorks country sites are not optimized for visits from your location. Toggle Main Navigation. Search Support Support MathWorks. Search MathWorks. Off-Canvas Navigation Menu Toggle. Remove Salt and Pepper Noise from Images Median filtering is a common image enhancement technique for removing salt and pepper noise.Salt-and-pepper noise is a form of noise sometimes seen on images.

It is also known as impulse noise. This noise can be caused by sharp and sudden disturbances in the image signal. It presents itself as sparsely occurring white and black pixels.

An effective noise reduction method for this type of noise is a median filter [1] or a morphological filter. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

salt and pepper noise

This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Digital Image Processing. Tata McGraw-Hill Education. Image and Video-Based Artistic Stylisation.

Springer Publishing. Categories : Noise graphics Digital photography Image noise reduction techniques Photography stubs. Hidden categories: Articles needing additional references from March All articles needing additional references All stub articles.

Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. This photography-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.Read on for code extracts and explanations. OpenCV is an open-source set of programming functions aimed at computer vision applications.

The installation of OpenCV and Python on macOS was quite involved but this tutorial from pyimagesearch was a great starting point. There are many sources of installation instructions for other operating systems just a Google search away.

Below is a Python function written to do just that with 8-bit images:. This function accepts an 8-bit image and converts its integer pixel values that range from to floating point pixel values that range from If we do not convert to a floating point data type here, adding a value to a pixel which increases it to a number greater than will cause the value to wrap around to zero before continuing the addition. The rationale here is that noise will be added to the image where 0 and pad — 1 show up in the random integer set.

Higher values of pad will decrease the likelihood of 0 and pad — 1 occurring and result in less noise being added to the image vice versa for smaller values of pad. As indicated above, once we have our random integers we add noise to the image where 0 and pad — 1 show up in the random integer set:. Now that we have added noise to our image all that is left to be done is to convert our image back to 8-bit pixel values. That is accomplished with the following line:. Below is my Python code for applying a Median filter to an image:.

The aperture value must be odd and greater than 1. Larger aperture values will result in increased blurring of details due to a large region of pixels being used to generate the filtered pixel.

Once the image is filtered we can display it and return it for use.

Noise Generation

You are commenting using your WordPress. You are commenting using your Google account. You are commenting using your Twitter account. You are commenting using your Facebook account. Notify me of new comments via email. Notify me of new posts via email. We are interested in occurrences of high and low bounds of pad. Increased pad size lowers occurence of high and low bounds.

These high and low bounds are converted to salt and pepper noise later in the function. As indicated above, once we have our random integers we add noise to the image where 0 and pad — 1 show up in the random integer set: Convert high and low bounds of pad in noise to salt and pepper noise then add it to our image.Image noise is random variation of brightness or color information in imagesand is usually an aspect of electronic noise.

It can be produced by the image sensor and circuitry of a scanner or digital camera. Image noise can also originate in film grain and in the unavoidable shot noise of an ideal photon detector.

Image noise is an undesirable by-product of image capture that obscures the desired information. The original meaning of "noise" was "unwanted signal"; unwanted electrical fluctuations in signals received by AM radios caused audible acoustic noise "static".

By analogy, unwanted electrical fluctuations are also called "noise". Image noise can range from almost imperceptible specks on a digital photograph taken in good light, to optical and radioastronomical images that are almost entirely noise, from which a small amount of information can be derived by sophisticated processing. Such a noise level would be unacceptable in a photograph since it would be impossible even to determine the subject.

Principal sources of Gaussian noise in digital images arise during acquisition. The sensor has inherent noise due to the level of illumination and its own temperature, and the electronic circuits connected to the sensor inject their own share of electronic circuit noise.

Image noise

A typical model of image noise is Gaussian, additive, independent at each pixeland independent of the signal intensity, caused primarily by Johnson—Nyquist noise thermal noiseincluding that which comes from the reset noise of capacitors "kTC noise". Also, there are many Gaussian denoising algorithms. Fat-tail distributed or "impulsive" noise is sometimes called salt-and-pepper noise or spike noise. Dead pixels in an LCD monitor produce a similar, but non-random, display.

The dominant noise in the brighter parts of an image from an image sensor is typically that caused by statistical quantum fluctuations, that is, variation in the number of photons sensed at a given exposure level. This noise is known as photon shot noise. Shot noise follows a Poisson distributionwhich except at very high intensity levels approximates a Gaussian distribution. In addition to photon shot noise, there can be additional shot noise from the dark leakage current in the image sensor; this noise is sometimes known as "dark shot noise" [6] or "dark-current shot noise".

The variable dark charge of normal and hot pixels can be subtracted off using "dark frame subtraction"leaving only the shot noise, or random component, of the leakage.

The noise caused by quantizing the pixels of a sensed image to a number of discrete levels is known as quantization noise. It has an approximately uniform distribution. Though it can be signal dependent, it will be signal independent if other noise sources are big enough to cause ditheringor if dithering is explicitly applied. The grain of photographic film is a signal-dependent noise, with similar statistical distribution to shot noise. In areas where the probability is low, this distribution will be close to the classic Poisson distribution of shot noise.

A simple Gaussian distribution is often used as an adequately accurate model. Film grain is usually regarded as a nearly isotropic non-oriented noise source. Its effect is made worse by the distribution of silver halide grains in the film also being random. Some noise sources show up with a significant orientation in images.Documentation Help Center.

See Algorithms for more information. Grayscale image, specified as a numeric matrix. If I has more than two dimensions, then the image is treated as a multidimensional grayscale image and not as an RGB image. You can use the rescale function to adjust pixel values to the expected range. If your image is type double or single with values outside the range [0,1], then imnoise clips input pixel values to the range [0, 1] before adding noise.

For Poisson noise, images of data type int16 are not allowed. Data Types: single double int16 uint8 uint A numeric matrix of the same size as I. Intensity values that are mapped to Gaussian noise variance, specified as a numeric vector.

The values are normalized to the range [0, 1].

salt and pepper noise

Noise density for salt and pepper noise, specified as a numeric scalar. Noisy image, returned as a numeric matrix of the same data type as input image I. For images of data type double or singlethe imnoise function clips output pixel values to the range [0, 1] after adding noise. The mean and variance parameters for 'gaussian''localvar'and 'speckle' noise types are always specified as if the image were of class double in the range [0, 1].

If the input image is a different class, the imnoise function converts the image to doubleadds noise according to the specified type and parameters, clips pixel values to the range [0, 1], and then converts the noisy image back to the same class as the input. The Poisson distribution depends on the data type of input image I :.

If I is double precision, then input pixel values are interpreted as means of Poisson distributions scaled up by 1e For example, if an input pixel has the value 5. If I is single precision, the scale factor used is 1e6. If I is uint8 or uint16then input pixel values are used directly without scaling. For example, if a pixel in a uint8 input has the value 10, then the corresponding output pixel will be generated from a Poisson distribution with mean For pixels with probability value in the range [ d1the pixel value is unchanged.

This function fully supports GPU arrays. A modified version of this example exists on your system. Do you want to open this version instead? Choose a web site to get translated content where available and see local events and offers. Based on your location, we recommend that you select:. Select the China site in Chinese or English for best site performance. Other MathWorks country sites are not optimized for visits from your location.

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salt and pepper noise

Search Support Support MathWorks.This type of noise non-Gaussian i. Examples of it can be seen in video and images from deteriorated image sensors. In the video linked below you can see examples of it:. As Tim Peake shows us the effect of low-gravity on dizziness you can see a few examples of white pixels.

This is due to radiation damage to the CCD recording the image. Admittedly, this noise is more of the salt variety but it is an interesting real-world example nonetheless. Gaussian noise has a zero average or is zero-mean. What this means is that when we apply averaging filters to removing it we can come close to averaging away the effect of the noise to zero.

A median filter works by evaluating a region of pixels around a pixel of interest. The median value of the region of pixels is calculated the value of the pixel of interest is included. The value of the pixel of interest is then replaced with the calculated median which will be the value of a pixel in the region being filtered. The operation of a median filter is illustrated in the diagram below:.

The median filter is, as expected, very effective at removing this particular type of noise. In the next post we will dig into the code that generated the images above. Interesting filter! Is this operation applied to all image pixels, or can you use the fact that the noise is all white or all black to selectively identify pixels of noise to apply the filter?

Like Like. This operation works across the entire image and the side effect of that is that the image is blurred. Interesting idea on being selective! I suppose you could look for white or black pixels that are markedly different from surrounding pixels to avoid swathes of black or white and then apply the median filter only at that location. You are commenting using your WordPress. You are commenting using your Google account. You are commenting using your Twitter account.

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